Multiple Choice Question


What did Indian Nation and Sri Lanka both have struggle with after gained independence?

A. New government of nation.
B. Religion and ethnic conflicts.
C. Military competition with other nations.
D. Power over monarchy inequality.


Division of Pakistan


Pakistan and India were divided due to the Partition of India. India and Pakistan used to be one country until August 15, 1947. The partition was brought up by the last British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten. He had the ceremony held at midnight so he could attend both ceremonies in both countries. One was in Delhi the capital of India, and the other was held in Karachi the capital of Pakistan. When Pakistan left, it ended 350 years of British presence in India. Pakistan broke off to be an Islamic state and India stayed as a secular state. This resulted in Pakistan being a Muslim majority region. There was debate that Britain gave Pakistan unfair and inaccurate boundaries and cause people to move from their homes. Pakistan only got 23% of India's land and only 18% of the population when they split.
1971.GIF
India in 1971 after the partition of India. This picture shows where Pakistan and Bangladesh split off.


200px-Portrait_Gandhi.jpg
A picture of Mohanda K. Gandi in 1940's.

Mohandas K. Gandhi


Mohandas K. Gandhi became a leader in the Indian independence
movement and in the Indian National Congress. Gandhi used and taught
Indians a policy of noncooperation against the British Government.
Another tactic he used was civil disobedience. Civil disobedience
meant that government and laws should be servants to God and human
beings. The three was Gandhi used civil disobedience were boycotts, strikes and demonstrations, and the Salt March. The Salt March was where Britain put
a monopoly on salt which made it illegal for Indans to buy or sell salt legally.
To show an act of civil disobedience Gandhi and his followers marched 200 miles to the Arabian Sea where thousands of people bought and sold salt illegally.
Britain then reacted by killing or imprisoning the people involved.



Rowlatt Acts & Nationalism


After World War I, nationalistic activity grew. It grew because everyone thought that their country was better than everyone else's. This caused people to fight for their county and gain more land. These acts were passed by the British government in March 18, 1919. The Rowlatt Acts gave the British government power over printing and reporting news. This made it so that the news of the lost war would not make it to the people, and would be filtered out instead. More stuff included in the Rowlatt Acts were the right to imprison a person without trail, to conduct a trial without a jury, and to use torture in interrogation. Edwin Montagu, the former secretary of state for India and Gandhi disagreed with these acts. Gandhi expressed his disagreement to these acts through protests which led to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in April 1919, and to Gandhi's Noncooperation movement in 1920.



Amritsar Massacre


Also known as the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre happened on April 13, 1919 and was probably one of the most horrible days in the history of the Indian Freedom Movement. Its purpose was to be a peaceful protest against the Rowlatt Acts and the British Government. But then British General, Edward Dyer ordered to open fire on the innocent people of Amritsar and about 400 men, women, and children were killed and left thousands injured. After the massacre Dyer imposed martial laws, ordered floggings (beatings) and public humiliation.
This picture shows the present Jallianwala Bagh city
This picture shows the present Jallianwala Bagh city
But his ideas were turned down which then stirred nationalist feelings across India.

This picture showes exact where masscre took place in 1919
This picture showes exact where masscre took place in 1919



Government of India Act

In 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act. The act was the British Raj's last pre-independence act. The committee established by British Government was trying to make a new act for India. The committee was mad up of 16 members from the House of Lords. And the president was Lord Linlithgow. They made a draft bill on February 5, 1935. King George V then signed the bill on July 1935. The same bill was later enacted as the Government of India Act of 1935. The bill included India's reserve bank established, federal court established, Burma and Aden separated from India, and lastly Sindh and Orissa was created.




Movement Toward Independence


In 1939 Britain used Frontier Warfare to intensify Indian resistance. Frontier Warfare is where they fight up in front of each other. The Indian National Congress (INC) and the Muslim League (ML) had two differences. The INC proposed reforms and wanted larger vote in British policy for India. And the ML wanted to safeguard politics seperation. The conflict between the two was the Muslim League wanted a Muslim state. So the Indian National Congress protested.



Indian Independence


August 15, 1947 India gained its independence from Britain. The British let go because they wanted to continue their rule in India while the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress clashed. Britaiworried they would lose the their power over India if they gained their Independence. But the road to independence wasn't easy. August 1946 there were massive hindu-muslim riots in Calcutta. July 16, 1947 Britain cut off the last ties of power in India and India Pakistan emerged. This created riots between the hidus muslim and sikhs. Tension between Hindus and Muslims soon lead to a clash over Territory of Kashmir. These tensions originated from the hesitation of the Hindu leader in Kashmir to choose a side between Pakistan and India. The two have been warring over Kashmir for the long years since the original clash. Many outside forces have tried to mediate this ongoing war, such as the United Nations. Earlier in the long fight, they helped by having both sides sign the Ceasefire Agreements and the Simla Agreement.





Sri Lanka Ethnic Diversion
Sri Lanka Ethnic Diversion
Bangladesh & Sri Lanka Struggle


Sri Lanka, a small island off of the southern coast of India, formerly known as Ceylon, gained its independence from Britain in February 1948. The civil war with Pakistan destroyed the economy and fracture of communication of Bangladesh. After independence, Bangladesh had problems over to create a more democratic form of government, until Sheik Rahman became prime minister. Later massive storms flooded the land and crops, and took people's lives. There are two main ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese and the Tamils. A militant group of Tamils has long fought armed struggle for a separate nation from the Sinhalese. In 1987, India made Sri Lanka sign a Peace Accord, trying to help replace the Tamil religion. However, war soon broke out in 1995. The civil war in Sri Lanka still continues today.





Modern India


India became the world's largest democracy when they gained their independence on
The first minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru
The first minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru
August 15, 1947. The first minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru helped India gain democracy, unity and modernization. Indira Gandhi, the daughter of Mohandas Gandhi was a prime minister. One problem she faced was the Sikhs extremist wanted an independent state but she would not allow that. So in June, 1984 the Indian army overran the Golden Temple, the place the Sikhs worship, and they killed about 500 Sikhs and destroyed sacred property in the Golden Temple. By 2035 it is expected that India's populatin will pass China's. Now India and Pakistan have both become Nuclear powers. In 1974 India exploded a "peaceful" nuclear device. So in 1998 Indian officials conducted 5 underground nuclear tests. While India was doing this Pakistan had been building their own nuclear program.




Pakistan and Freedom


Before Pakistan was one country, there was East Pakistan and West Pakistan. They had many differences like culture, language, history, geography, economics, and ethnic backgrounds. One thing they had in common was Islamic religion. Because of so many differences on March 26, 1917 East Pakistan declares itself independent and changes its name to Bangladesh. When civil war breaks out India sends troops to help Bangladesh. The nation still struggles with the challenges from Muslim Militants and India.



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