U.S. and Soviet Union Arms and Space Race


The Space Race was a time when the Soviet Union and the United States were competing to become the most technologically advanced and best in the world. The U.S. and Soviet Union both created hydrogen and atomic bombs that almost lead to a world wide nuclear world. The arms race lead into the space race, which started with the launching of the Sputnik satellite. The space race was a short period of time where many advancements in space exploration were made. As the space race ended, the arms race continued on. The arms race race was a long, stressful period of time, where people lived in fear, but many weapons advancements were made (Flynn).

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Rocket launching


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A hydrogen bomb explosion

The Effects of The Cold War

With the new technology advancements that the Soviet Union and U.S had, atomic and hydrogen bombs lead to the constant fear of the possibility of nuclear warfare. The unique property of the cold war was that it wasn't just a war but a series of related conflicts of different problems coming from one main problem; the threat of nuclear warfare. Boundaries, institutions and relationships formed in the late 1940s - 1990s were still shaping world politics until the Cold War's sudden end (Phillips).








Threat of Nuclear War


After World War II
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The atom bomb
, the United States and the Soviet Union began an arms race that would continue through the 1980s. The arms race was the accumulation of nuclear weapons by the United States and the Soviet Union,the arms race started in 1949 after the Soviet Union successfully set off their first atomic bomb (Carlisle).
In the 1950s, the Soviet Union developed atomic and hydrogen bombs along with
an international bomber force, the U.S also developed hydrogen and atomic bombs. Hydrogen bombs were one hundred times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Increasing

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Hydrogen bomb
The Soviets developed short and medium range missiles that could be armed with nuclear warheads. The first Soviet tests occurred in 1949, and American reporters jokingly called the tests "Joe 1,2,3" etc., to mock Joseph Stalin. Later when Soviet records were released, it suggested that there was an earlier test in August 1953 that the Americans did not know about. Later, the Soviet Union signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty to limit nuclear weapons testing, but they continued to conduct tests secretly.



The Soviets conducted an extensive tests of peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE), some of which may have also had a weapons purpose, although their primary and official purposes were to support oil, gas, and mining industries. The Soviet PNE program included 116 detonations between 23 years.The confrontation between U.S president John Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchez in 1961 created a new term “brinkmanship”. “Brinkmanship” is the term referring to the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba, it seemed that both leaders have gone to the “brink”, or the edge of war (Carlisle).


The Cold War in the Skies

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Sputnik 1
In 1957, Soviets launched Sputnik (means "traveler"), the first unmanned satellite
that was designed by Sergei Korolov. This was the Soviet Union's first space program that paved the way for sending humans into space. Sputnik traveled through space at approximately 17,360 miles per hour and circled the Earth once every 96 minutes.
The features of Sputnik included a steel sphere that was 23 inches in diameter. Sputnik
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Yuri A. Gagarin, first man in space
weighed 184 pounds on Earth (Sputnik). The two antennae were radio transmitters that sent signals to Earth using two different frequencies. The satellite ran on battery power. Sputnik stopped working in October 26, 1957. The satellite fell back to Earth on January 4, 1958, and burned up as it entered back into Earth’s atmosphere. Russia was the first to send a living man into outer space, Yuri A. Gagarin. With the Soviet Union sending Sputnik into orbit around the earth, they won the race to have the first satellite in space. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established to push the United States ahead in the space race. Kennedy hoped to catch up to the Soviet Union in space exploration (Robinson). When the U.S. sent a U-2 plane to spy on the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons testing in May 1960, the Soviet Union shot it down (American Decades 193).

For the video about the Space Race on History Channel, click here: The Space Race










Multiple Choice Question:
*Who was the first person to orbit the earth?

a) Neil Armstrong
b) Yuri A Gagarin
c) Lyndon Johnson
d) Laika

(answer below sources)


Sources

Benson, Gene. "Strategic Air and Space Museum." 2006-2008. Web. 2010.

Carlisle, Rodney P. "Brinkmanship." Encyclopedia of the Atomic Age. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2001. Modern World History Online. Facts on File, Ink. WEB.

Carlisle, Rodney P. "Soviet Weapons Tests." Encyclopedia of the Atomic Age. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2001. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. WEB

"Commentary on 1954." The Cold War. American Journey Online. Woodbridge, CT.: Primary Source Microfilm, 2000. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN
JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 5 May. 2010. WEB.

Flynn, Matthew. "Arms Race, Post–World War II." In Winkler, Allan M., Susan V. Spellman, and Gary B. Nash, eds. Encyclopedia of American History: Postwar United States, 1946 to 1968, vol. 9. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. WEB.

Forgach, Andras. "The first atomic bomb." ZEHUZE. ZEHUZE. Web. 2010.

Hoppers, Marcia. "Sputnik 1 in Orbit." Astrographics. Astrogrpahics. 2007. Web. 2010.

Irvine, Tom. "The Cold War & Space Race Era." Vibration Data. Tom Irvine, 11/3/2006. Web. 6 May 2010. WEB.

Kallen, Stuart A. The Cold War PRIMARY SOURCES. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2003. 112. Print.

Layman, Richard. American Decades 1950-1959. Detroit, MI: Gale Research International Limited, 1994. 521. Print.

Maus, Derek C. The Cold War. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2003. 272. Print.

"Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in the 1960s." DISCovering U.S. History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 6 May. 2010

Phillips, Charles, and Alan Axelrod. "Cold War." Encyclopedia of Wars, vol. 1. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. WEB

Robinson, Peter. "Space Race." In Winkler, Allan M., Susan V. Spellman, and Gary B. Nash, eds. Encyclopedia of American History: Postwar United States, 1946 to 1968, vol. 9. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. WEB.

"Space Exploration Time Line." RMultyphicics. RMultyphisics. 2001. Web. 2010.

"Space Race." National Air and Space Museum. National Air and Space Museum, 2002. Web. 6 May 2010.

"Sputnik." UXL Science. Online ed. Detroit: UXL, 2008.Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 5 May. 2010. WEB.

"Sputnik 1." World of Invention. Ed. Kimberley A. McGrath and Bridget Travers. Online ed. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2006. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 6 May. 2010. WEB.

"The Cold War: A Brief History." Atomicarchive. AJ Software & Multimedia. 1998-2008. Web. 2010.

"The Space Race." 2010. THe HIstory Channel website. May 14 2010.

"Yuri Gagarin." Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 2010. Web. 2010.

Waldman, Carl, and Jon Cunningham. "National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)." Encyclopedia of Exploration: Places, Technologies, and Cultural Trends, volume New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. WEB.

Multiple Choice Question Answer
b) Yuri A. Gagarin