Atomic Bombs in Japan

Cerroto,Gatterdam,Kisare,Rice,Romanelli





baker1.jpg
First Atomic Bomb dropped on Japan


What was the Manhattan Project?


The Manhattan Project was known as a secret government creating an atomic bomb.This project was focused on making an atomic bomb, created by physicists including Enrico Fermi, Albert Einstein, and Leo Szilard. This project was managed by Brigadier General Leslie Richard Groves. He organized the knowledge gained throughout the Manhattan project so that everyone who contributed to it, possessed a small amount of information related to his or her specific task or area. The people contributing to this were not to talk about it with anyone outside of work. With only a few people knowing how the project fit together, secrecy was easy to maintain. Also, five states took part, scattered across the United States. Each state played its own significant role in creating the atomic bomb. Once it was shown that the atomic bomb technology actually worked, the Manhattan Project reached its final stages, which led to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.(Tompson)(Manhattan Project)

What warning did the advisors have for Truman about the invasion of Japan?

Although Truman did not know much about the atomic bomb when he first entered his presidency, he was advised that the best thing to do to end World War II, was to drop the atomic bomb over Japan. Germany had already surrendered so the only country left that the Allies had to defeat was Japan. But, if the Allies invaded Japan, it would result in over half a million Allied deaths.(First Atomic Bomb)(The Atomic Bomb)

He has an alternative; powerful new weapon:The Atomic Bomb





Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945; about 75,000 die.
250px-Nagasakibomb.jpg
Atomic Bomb over Nagasaki
250px-Atomic_cloud_over_Hiroshima.jpg
Atomic cloud over Hiroshima



On August 6, 1945, an American B-29 bomber was carrying an atomic bomb. Dropping from 31,600 feet, the bomb was released over Hiroshima, Japan. It was released over the center of the city, immediately killing more than 80,000 people and injuring thousands more. The heat and explosion caused a great amount of destruction to the city.(Quinn)(Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima)




.






Nagasaki bombed on August 9; 70,000 die immediately.
On August 9, over Nagasaki, Japan, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb over Japan, which killed more than 40,000 of Nagasaki's population. Even some survivors of Hiroshima were killed during the second bomb, after they had fled the city of Hiroshima. An estimated 110,000 to 150,000 people were killed by the two bombs and another 200,000 or more were injured by them. After the second bomb dropped, known as "Fat Man", Japan surrendered, which then ended World War II. (Barnhill)(Jeffries)



8.jpg
Destruction Of Fat Man


SEPTEMBER 2, 1945


On September 2, 1945, the war in the Pacific officially ended. Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed Japan's formal surrender aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. General Douglas MacArthur was the commander of the U.S. forces in the Pacific during World War II. He received Japan's surrender, temporarily becoming the defeated nation's new emperor.(Ambrose)(Feldman)(Vat)

Radiation poisoning(Nurses turn to victims)


The day of each bombs thousands died of the initial blast. But that was not the only thing that was killing the Japanese. It was the odorless, tasteless chemical called Radiation. The death toll began to rise again after the bombs but people did not know why. The finally figured out that the radiation in the bomb had spread and given the people "Radiation Poisoning". The Radiation did not begin until three weeks after the blast and did not taper off till around 8-9 weeks. Some of the long term effects of this radiation poisoning was high risk of cancer, birth defects, lung disease, physiological attacks, and death. The issue with radiation poisoning is that it sometimes stays in one area for a long period of time. Therefore the effects today are unknown. But one thing they did see was the eye. People's eyes began to turn a copper color. This made them blind and caused chaos.


16-2.jpg
Copper eye caused by Radiation


Long term effects of the atomic bombs(A.R.S)

There were lots of long term effects that are still being tested today. That is over 60 years ago and there is still problems in Japan. Some of the medical effects from the bomb are as follows:
  • Periodic testing of people that were alive during the time. This is a mandatory checkup and is causing tons of money for the Japanese people.
  • Eye damage as shown in the photo above. This disease still exists and is called ''atomic bomb cataracts".
  • Children that were in the womb are still affected today. There are lots of birth defects and deformations in the human body. Some children became ''emotionally and intellectually retarded'' into their adult years.
  • The immortality rate in Japan has dangerously been increasing due to the exposure of radiation. The radiation causes serious health issues such as 10 types of cancer.
Some of the social findings were as follows:
  • An effect called the "Bomb damage". This not only led to physical damage but also ''social disintegration’’
  • The aggravation of the radiation damage made people stay inside and never want to have a normal life again.

Lastly there were physiological effects from the bomb are as follows

  • All of the Japanese people are still paranoid that another attack is imminent.
  • The possibility that radiation could still be poisoning the population is concerning the people of Japan.
  • Many have undergone "Spiritual exercises" to free their mind and pray to a higher power.(Cancer Risks Among Atomic-Bomb Survivors)(Growth and mental retardation)(Birth defects)

10-1.jpg


Works Cited
Websites:
Tompson, Richard S. “The Atomic Bomb during and after World War II.” Modern World History Online. Facts on File, 5 May 2010. Web. 5 May 2010.

Jeffries, John W. "Hiroshima and Nagasaki." In Jeffries, John W., Katherine Liapis Segrue, and Gary B. Nash, eds. Encyclopedia of American History: The Great Depression and World War II, 1929 to 1945, vol. 8. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. May 7, 2010).


Barnhill, John H. "Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." In Ackermann, Marsha E., Michael Schroeder, Janice J. Terry, Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur, and Mark F. Whitters, eds. Encyclopedia of World History: Crisis and Achievement, 1900 to 1950, vol. 5. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2008. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. (accessed May 6, 2010).

"Atomic Bomb Dropped on Hiroshima, August 6, 1945." DISCovering World History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 4 May. 2010.

"The Atomic Bomb." Gale Encyclopedia of World History: War. Ed. Anne Marie Hacht and Dwayne D. Hayes. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 4 May. 2010.

"Nurses Tend to Victims of Atomic Bombs in Japan." American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. (accessed May 7, 2010).

"Manhattan Project." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: War. Ed. Anne Marie Hacht and Dwayne D. Hayes. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 11 May 20.
Top of Form
"The First Atomic Bomb Is Successfully Detonated, July 16, 1945." DISCovering World History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. DUBLIN JEROME HIGH SCHOOL. 11 May. 2010.
Bottom of Form
Quinn, Edward. "Hiroshima in literature." History in Literature: A Reader's Guide to 20th Century History and the Literature it Inspired. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2008. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc.

“Acute Radiation Syndrome.” Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Online. 28 Nov. 2000.

“Are Birth Defects More Common Among the Children of Atomic-Bomb Survivors?” Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Online. 28 Nov. 2000.

“Cancer Risks Among Atomic-Bomb Survivors.” Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Online.
28 Nov. 2000.

“Growth Impairment and Mental Retardation Among Children Exposed to Atomic-Bomb Radiation Before Birth.” Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Online. 28 Nov. 2000.


Videos:
"Atomic Bomb Explodes on Hiroshima." The WPA Film Library. WMV video file. Modern World History Online. Facts On File, Inc. (accessed May 10, 2010).

“Nurses Tend to Victims of Atomic Bombs in Japan." The WPA Film Library. WMV video file. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. (accessed May 7, 2010).
Books:
Ambrose, Stephen E., and C. L. Sulzberger. WWI: Weapons of War. San Diego: Penguin, 1997. Print.

Feldman, George. “Japan Attacks and America Goes to War.” World War II Almanac. 2nd ed. 2000. Print.

Vat, Dan Van Der. Pearl Harbor. Toronto: Perseus, 2001. Print.
Photos:
“Fat Man mushroom cloud”. 6 Aug. 1945. Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 8 May 2010. Web. 8 May 2010.

“Mushroom Cloud over Hiroshima”. 6 Aug. 1945. Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 8 May 2010.
Web. 8 May 2010.

“A Factory Destroyed By The Blast”. 6 Aug. 1945. HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI.
Gensuikin, n.d. Web. 11 May 2010.

“Operation Crossroads”. 6 Aug. 1945. Atmospheric Nuclear Detonation. Zvis, n.d.
Web. 11 May 2010.

“Subcutaneous Hemorrhage / Atomic Bomb Cataract Caused By Radiation”. 6 Aug.
1945. HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI. Gensuikin, n.d. Web. 11 May 2010.

“The Heat Rays Burned the Clothing Pattern Onto the Skin / A Woman's Back Burned
By The Strong Heat Rays”. 6 Aug. 1945. HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI. Gensuikin,
n.d. Web. 11 May 2010.

"There You'll Be" By Faith Hill. Written for the movie Pearl Harbor and remembrance of the bombs.